Let’s start with the first one, odori, which literally means 'smells'. When you go to the market and buy your fruit and vegetables, this will be the last question you’ll receive from the vendor: ‘do you want some odori?’ If you nod, they’ll tuck a carrot, a stalk of celery, a bunch of parsley, maybe some basil if it's in season and an onion into your shopping bag. They won’t charge you a penny.
These vegetables are grouped together under the name odori as they give any typical recipe a fragrant smell. They can vary from region to region, from family to family, but they will all be known under the same general name. Consider a slow-cooked, traditional, comforting beef broth. You take a large pot, fill it up with water and add your chosen cut of meat along with some odori: a carrot and a celery for good measure, then an onion, a tiny ripe tomato, a few leaves of parsley and basil; sometimes a clove, too. The odori is what gives it that special, inviting aroma.